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Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Syllabus for IFS Main Examination- 2016


Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Syllabus for IFS Main Examination- 2016 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE PAPER-­I 1. Animal Nutrition­- Energy sources, energy, metabolism and requirements for maintenance and production of milk, meat, eggs and wool. Evaluation of feeds as sources of energy.

Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Syllabus for IFS Main Examination- 2016



1. Animal Nutrition­- Energy sources, energy, metabolism and requirements for maintenance and production of milk, meat, eggs and wool. Evaluation of feeds as sources of energy.

1.1. Trends in protein nutrition: sources of protein metabolism and synthesis, protein quantity and quality in relation to requirements. Energy protein ratios in ration.

1.2. Minerals in animal diet : Sources, functions, requirements and their relationship of the basic minerals nutrients including trace elements.

1.3. Vitamins, Hormones and Growth Stimulating, substances : Sources, functions, requirements and inter‐relationship with minerals.

1.4. Advances in Ruminant Nutrition‐Dairy Cattle: Nutrients and their metabolism with reference to milk production and its composition. Nutrient requirements for calves, heifers, dry and milking cows and buffaloes. Limitations of various feeding systems.

1.5 Advances in Non‐Ruminant Nutrition‐Poultry‐Nutrients and their metabolism with reference to poultry, meat and egg production, Nutrients requirements and feed formulation and broilers at different ages. 

1.6 Advances in Non‐Ruminant Nutrition‐Swine‐Nutrients and their metabolism with special reference to growth and quality of meat production, Nutrient requirement and feed formulation for baby‐growing and finishing pigs.

1.7. Advances in Applied Animal Nutrition‐A critical review and evaluation of feeding experiments, digestibility and balance studies. Feeding standards and measures of food energy. Nutrition requirements for growth, maintenance and production. Balanced rations.

2. Animal Physiology :

2.1 Growth and Animal Production : Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, growth curves, measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality. 

2.2 Milk Production and Reproduction and Digestion : Current status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection. Male and Female reproduction organ, their components and function. Digestive organs and their functions.

2.3 Environmental Physiology : Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanism involved in animal behaviour, methods of controlling climatic stress.

2.4 Semen quality : Preservation and Artificial Insemination‐Components of semen, composition of spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro. Factors affecting semen production and quality preservation, composition of diluents, sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen. Deep Freezing techniques in cows, sheep and goats, swine and poultry. 

Detection of estrus and time of insemination for better conception.

3. Livestock Production and Management :

3.1 Commercial Dairy Farming ­Comparison of dairy farming in India with advanced countries. Dairying under fixed farming and as a specialised farming, economic dairy farming, Starting of a dairy farm. Capital and land requirement, organisation of the dairy farm.

Procurement of goods; opportunities in dairy farming, factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal, Herd recording, budgeting, cost of milk production; pricing policy; Personnel Management. Developing Practical and Economic ration for dairy cattle; supply of greens throughout the year, field  and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm, Feeding regimes for day and young stock and bulls, heifers and breeding animals, new trends in feeding young and adult stock; Feeding records.

3.2 Commercial meat, egg and wool production: Development of practical and economic rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. Supply of greens, fodder, feeding regimens for young and mature stock. New trends in enhancing production and management. Capital and land requirements and socio‐ economic concept.

3.3 Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural calamities.

4. Genetics and Animal Breeding : Mitosis and Meiosis; Mendelian inheritance; deviations to Mendelian genetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing over; Sex determination, sex influenced and sex limited characters; Blood groups and polymorphism; Chromosome aberrations; Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material; Genetic code and protein synthesis; Recombinant DNA technology, Mutations, types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate.

4.1 Population Genetics Applied to Animal Breeding: Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits; Hardy Weinberg Law; Population Vs. individual; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces changing gene frequency; Random drift and small populations; Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding, methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding; Effective population size; Breeding value, estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation; partitioning of variation; Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X environment interaction; Role of multiple measurements; Resemblance between relatives 

4.2 Breeding Systems : Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to selection and their relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection; Progeny testing; Methods of selection; Construction of selection indices and their uses; Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods; Indirect selection and Correlated response; Inbreeding, upgrading, cross‐breeding and synthesis of brees; Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production; Selection for general and specific combining ability; Breeding for threshold character.

Paper II
1. Health and Hygiene

1.1. Histology and Histological Techniques : Stains‐Chemical classification of stains used in biological work‐principles of staining tissues‐mordants‐progressive & regressive stains‐differential staining of cytoplasmic and connective tissue elements‐Methods of preparation and processing of tissues‐celloidin embedding‐Freezing microtomy‐Microscopy‐Bright field microscope and electron microscope. Cytology‐ structure of cell, organells & inclusions; cell division‐cell types‐Tissues and their classification‐embryonic and adult tissues‐Comparative histology of organs:‐ vascular, Nervous, digestive, respiratory, musculo‐ skeletal and urogenital systems‐Endocrine glands‐Integuments‐sense organs. 

1.2. Embryology : Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves and domestic mammals‐gametogenesis‐fertilization‐germ layers‐foetal membranes & placentation‐types of placenta in domestic mammals‐Teratology‐twin & twinning‐organogenesis‐germ layer derivatives‐endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal derivatives.

1.3 Bovine Anatomy ­Regional Anatomy: Paranasal sinuses of OX‐surface anatomy of salivary glands.Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, mandibuloalveolar, mental & coronal nerve block‐Regional anatomy of para‐vertebral nerves, pudental nerve, median, ulnar & radial nerves‐tibial, fibular and digital nerves‐Cranial nerves‐structures involved in epidural anaesthesia‐superficial lymph nodes‐surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities‐comparative features of locomotor apparatus & their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.

1.4 Anatomy of Fowl : Musculo‐skeletal system‐functional anatomy in relation to respiration and flying, digestion and egg production.

1.5 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion, Endocrine glands in health and disease.

1.5.1 Blood constituents : Properties and functions‐blood cell formation‐Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry‐plasma proteins production, classification and properties; coagulation of blood; Haemorrhagic disorders‐anticoagulants‐blood groups‐Blood volume‐Plasma expanders‐Buffer systems in blood. Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis. 

1.5.2. Circulation: Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle‐heart sounds, heartbeat, electro‐cardiograms, Work and efficiency of heart‐effect of ions on heart function‐metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressure and hypertension, Osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary  & pulmonary circulation, Blood‐Brain barrier‐Cerebrospinal fluid‐circulation in birds.

1.5.3 Respiration : Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases‐neural control of respiration‐chemo receptors‐hypoxia‐respiration in birds. 

1.5.4 Excretion: Structure and function of kidney‐formation of urine methods of studying renal function‐ renal regulation of acid‐base balance; physiological constituents of urine‐renal failure‐passive venous congestion‐Urinary recreation in chicken‐Sweat glands and their function. Biochemical tests for urinary dysfunction.

1.5.5 Endocrine glands : Functional disorders, their symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion‐hormonal receptors classification and function. 

1.6. General knowledge of pharmacology and therapeutics of drugs : Cellular level of pharmaco‐ dynamics and pharmaco‐kinetics‐Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance‐drugs acting on Autonomic nervous system‐Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative Anaesthetics‐Autocoids‐Antimicrobials and principles of chemotherapy in microbial injections‐use of hormones in therapeutics‐chemotherapy of parasitic infections‐Drug and economic persons in the Edible tissues of animals‐chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases.

1.7. Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation : Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil‐Importance of climate in animal health‐effect of environment on animal function and performance‐relationship between industrialization and animal agriculture‐animal housing requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows & sows, milking cows, broiler birds‐stress, strain & productivity in relation to animal habitation.

2. Animal Diseases : 

2.1 Pathogenesis, symptoms, postmortem lesions, diagnosis, and control of infection diseases of cattle, pigs and poultry, horses, sheep and goats.

2.2 Etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle, pig and poultry.

2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.

2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of nonspecific condition like impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisoning.

2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.

2.6 Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific diseases‐hard immunity‐ disease free zones‐'zero' disease concept‐chemoprophylaxis.

2.7 Anesthesia‐local, regional and general‐pre‐anesthetic medication, Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation, Hernia, choking, abomassal displacement‐Caesarian operations, Rumenotomy‐ Castrations.

2.8 Disease investigation techniques‐Materials for laboratory investigation‐Establishment Animal Health Centres‐Disease free zone.

3. Veterinary Public Health

3.1 Zoonoses : Classification, definition; role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases occupational zoonotic diseases.

3.2. Epidemiology : Principles, definition of epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease control, Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections. 

3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence : Rules and Regulations for improvement of animal  quality and prevention of animal diseases‐state and control Rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases‐S.P. C.A.‐veterolegal cases‐certificates‐Materials and Methods of collection of samples for veterolegal investigation.

4. Milk and Milk Products Technology :

4.1 Milk Technology : Organization of rural milk procurement, collection and transport of raw milk. Quality, testing and grading raw milk, Quality storage grades of whole milk, Skimmed milk and cream.  
Processing, packaging, storing, distributing, marketing defects and their control and nutritive properties of the following milks : Pasteurized, standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, youghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and sterlized milks. Legal standards, Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment. 

4.2 Milk Products Technology : Selection of raw materials, assembling, production, processing, storing, distributing and marketing milk products such as Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese; Condensed, evaporated, dried milk and baby food; Ice cream and Kulfi; by products; whey products, butter milk, lactose and casein. Testing Grading, judging milk products‐BIS and Agmark specifications, legal standards, quality control nutritive properties. Packaging, processing and operational control Costs.

5. Meat Hygiene and Technology :

5.1 Meat Hygiene :

5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter and dressing operations; abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection procedures and judgement of carcass meat cuts‐drading of carcass meat cuts‐duties and functions of Veterinarians in Wholesome meat production. 

5.1.2 Hygienic methods of handling production of meat‐spoilage of meat and control measures‐Post slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors that influence them‐quality improvement methods‐ Adulteration of meat and defection‐Regulatory provisions in Meat trade and Industry.

5.2. Meat Technology

5.2.1 Physical and chemical characteristics of meat‐meat emulsions‐methods of preservation of meat‐curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat products; meat products and formulations.

5.3. Byproducts : Slaughter house by products and their utilisation‐Edible and inedible byproducts‐social and economic implications of proper utilisation of slaughter house byproducts‐Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals.

5.4. Poultry Products Technology : Chemical composition and nutritive value of poultry meat, pre slaughter care and management. Slaughtering techniques, inspection, preservation of poultry meat, and products. Legal and BIS standards. Structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs. Microbial spoilage. Preservation and maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products.

5.5. Rabbit/Fur Animal farming : Care and management of rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization of fur and wool and recycling of waste byproducts. Grading of wool.

6. Extension : Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension. Different Methods adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback. Problems of constraints in transfer of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for rural development. 



1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology: Viruses, bacteria, and plasmids‐structure and reproduction. General account of infection, Phytoimmunology. Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control in air, soil and water.

Important plant diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes. Mode of infection and dissemination. Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/ defence. Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins.

2. Cryptogams: Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes‐structure and reproduction from evolutonary viewpoint. Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their economic potential.

3. Phanerogams: Gymnosperms: Concept of Progymonosperms. Classification and distribution of Gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Coniferrals and Gnetales, their structures and reproduction. General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales. 

Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny. Comparative account of various systems of Angiosperm Classiification. Study of angiospermic families‐Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceaie, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae (Composite), Poaceae (Gramineae), Arecaceae (Palmae), Liliaceae, Musaceae, Orchidaceae. 

Stomata and their types. Anomalous secondary growth, Anatomy of C 3 and C 4 plants.

Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization. Endosperm‐its development and function. Patterns of embryo development. Polyembryony, apoxmix, Applications of palynology.

4. Plant Utility and Exploitation:

Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov's centres of origin. Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes. 

Latex, cellulose Starch and their products. Perfumery. Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context. Energy plantation. Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.

5. Morphogenesis: Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation. Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids.


1. Cell Biology: Techniques of Cell Biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells ‐ structural and ultra structural details. Structure and function of extra cellular matrix or ECM (cell wall) and membranes cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport. Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, ribosome's, embosoms, lissome, peroxisomes, hydrogeno‐some). Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex. Chromatin and nucleosome. Cell signalling and cell receptors. Signal transduction (G‐1 proteins, etc.). Mitosis and meisdosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance. Study of polygene, lamp brush and B‐chromosomes‐structure, behaviour and significance.

2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution: Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudo alleles). Quantitative genetics and multiple factors. Linkage and crossing over‐methods of gene mapping including molecular maps (idea of mapping function). Sex chromosomes and sex linked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation. Mutation (biochemical and molecular basis). 

Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility). Prions and prion hypothesis.

Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Genetic code and regulation of gene expression. Multigene families. 

Organic evolution‐evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.

3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics: Methods of plant breeding‐introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method). Male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixes in plant breeding. Micro propagation and genetic engineering‐methods of transfer of genes and transgenic crops; development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding. 

Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z‐test, t‐test and chi‐square tests). Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson distributions). Correlation and regression .

4. Physiology and Biochemistry: Water relations, Mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis‐photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon pathways including C pathway (photorespiration), C, C and CAM pathways. Respiration (anaerobic and aerobic, including fermentation‐ electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes, energy transfer and energy conservation. Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome). Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence. Growth substances‐their chemical nature, role and applications in agri‐horticulture, growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal). Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and germination of seed. Fruit ripening ‐‐ its molecular basis and manipulation.

5. Ecology and Plant Geography: Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community. Plant succession. Concepts of biosphere. Ecosystems and their conservation. Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation). 

Forest types of India ‐‐ afforestation, deforestation and social forestry. Endangered plants, endemism and Red Data Books. Bio‐diversity. Convention of Biological Diversity, Sovereign Rights and Intellectual Property Rights. Biogeochemical cyeles. Global warming.


1. Atomic structure

Quantum theory, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, Schrödinger wave equation (time independent). Interpretation of wave function, particle in one‐dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions. Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.

2. Chemical bonding 

Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, factors affecting stability of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born‐Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments. Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy. Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding in homonuclear molecules: H2+, H2 to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, CN, CN‐, BeH2 and CO2. Comparison of valence bond and molecular oribtal theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length. 


Forms of solids, law of constancy of interfacial angles, crystal systems and crystal classes (crystallographic groups). Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell. Laws of rational indices. Bragg's law. X‐ ray diffraction by crystals. Close packing, radius ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values. Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl, CaF2, CdI2 and rutile. Imperfections in crystals, stoichiometric and non‐ stoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi‐conductors. Elementary study of liquid crystals. 

4. The gaseous state

Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions, liquification of gases and critical phenomena, Maxwell's distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion. 

5. Thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics

Thermodynamic systems, states and processes, work, heat and internal energy; first law of thermodynamics, work done on the systems and heat absorbed in different types of processes; calorimetry, energy and enthalpy changes in various processes and their temperature dependence. 
Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state function, entropy changes in various process, entropy‐ reversibility and irreversibility, Free energy functions; criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem and third law of thermodynamics. 
Micro and macro states; canonical ensemble and canonical partition function; electronic, rotational and vibrational partition functions and thermodynamic quantities; chemical equilibrium in ideal gas reactions.

6. Phase equilibria and solutions

Phase equilibria in pure substances; Clausius‐Clapeyron equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids‐upper and lower critical solution temperatures; partial molar quantities, their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their determination.

7. Electrochemistry

Debye‐Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye‐Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties.

Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries.

Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; rate of charge transfer, current density; overpotential; electroanalytical techniques‐voltametry, polarography, amperometry, cyclic‐voltametry,  ion selective electrodes and their use.

8. Chemical kinetics

Concentration dependence of rate of reaction; defferential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions. Rate equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant. Study of fast reactions by stop‐flow and relaxation methods. Collisions and transition state theories.

9. Photochemistry

Absorption of light; decay of excited state by different routes; photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens and their quantum yields.

10. Surface phenomena and catalysis

Adsorption from gages and solutions on solid adsorbents, adsorption isotherms‐Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms; determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts.

11. Bio­inorganic chemistry 

Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion‐transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), ionophores, photosynthesis‐PSI, PSII; nitrogen fixation, oxygen‐uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferredoxins.

12. Coordination chemistry

(a) Electronic configurations; introduction to theories of bonding in transition metal complexes. Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and electronic spactra of metal complexes.

(b) Isomerism in coordination compounds. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square‐planer complexes;  thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.

(c) Synthesis and structures of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.

(d) Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization. Compounds with metal‐metal bonds and metal atom clusters.

13. General chemistry of 'f' block elements

Lanthanides and actinides; separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.

14. Non-­Aqueous Solvents

Reactions in liquid NH3, HF, SO2 and H2 SO4. Failure of solvent system concept, coordination model of non‐ aqueous solvents. Some highly acidic media, fluoro‐sulphuric acid and super acids.


1. Delocalised covalent bonding : Aromaticity, anti‐aromaticity; annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, kekulene, fulvenes, sydnones. 

2 (a) Reaction mechanisms : General methods (both kinetic and non‐kinetic) of study of mechanism or organic reactions illustrated by examples‐use of isotopes, cross‐over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry; energy diagrams of simple organic reactions‐transition states and intermediates; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.

(b) Reactive intermediates : Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of carbonium and carbanium ions, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and niternes.

(c) Substitution reactions : SN1, SN2, SNi, SN1', SN2', SNi' and SRN1 mechanisms; neighbouring group participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compound including simple heterocyclic compounds‐pyrrole, thiophene, indole.

(d) Elimination reactions : E1, E2 and E1cb mechanisms; orientation in E2 reactions‐Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination‐acetate pyrolysis, Chugaev and Cope eliminations.

(e) Addition reactions : Electrophilic addition to C=C and C=C; nucleophilic addition to C=O, C=N, conjugated olefins and carbonyls.

(f) Rearrangements : Pinacol‐pinacolune, Hoffmann, Beckmann, Baeyer‐Villiger, Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner‐Meerwein rearrangements.

3. Pericyclic reactions : Classification and examples; Woodward‐Hoffmann rules‐clectrocyclic reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5] FMO approach. 

4. Chemistry and mechanism of reactions : Aldol condensation (including directed aldol condensation),Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen, Wolff‐Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler‐Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer‐Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.

5. Polymeric Systems

(a) Physical chemistry of polymers : Polymer solutions and their thermodynamic properties; number and weight average molecular weights of polymers. Determination of molecular weights by sedimentation, light scattering, osmotic pressure, viscosity, end group analysis methods.

(b) Preparation and properties of polymers : Organic polymers‐polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber. Inorganic polymers‐phosphonitrilic halides, borazines, silicones and silicates.

(c) Biopolymers : Basic bonding in proteins, DNA and RNA.

6. Synthetic uses of reagents : OsO4, HIO4, CrO3, Pb(OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na‐Liquid NH3, LiA1H4, NaBH4 n‐BuLi, MCPBA.

7. Photochemistry : Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds, excited and ground states, singlet and triplet states, Norrish‐Type I and Type II reactions.

8. Principles of spectroscopy and applications in structure elucidation 

(a) Rotational spectra­-diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants. 

(b) Vibrational spectra-­diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, specific frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.

(c) Electronic spectra : Singlet and triplet states. N‐>π* and π‐>π* transitions; application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls‐Woodward‐Fieser rules.

(d) Nuclear magnetic resonance : Isochronous and anisochronous protons; chemical shift and coupling constants; Application of H1 NMR to simple organic molecules.

(e) Mass spectra : Parent peak, base peak, daughter peak, metastable peak, fragmentation of simple organic molecules; £‐cleavage, McLafferty rearrangement.

(f) Electron spin resonance : Inorganic complexes and free radicals.

UPSC Indian Forest Service Examination - 2016 Full Detail



7th CPC Notification,16,8th,41,Accountant,78,Administrative,17,Admission,9,Admit Card,18,Advisor,6,Agriculture,25,AIIMS,32,All India,270,ALP,1,Andaman and Nicobar,5,Andhra Pradesh,42,ANM,6,Apprentice Posts,43,APPSC,11,APSC,7,Architect,3,Army,29,Arunachal Pradesh,3,ASM,3,Assam,50,Assistant,308,Audit Officer,10,Aviation,29,Ayurvedic,4,B Arch,18,B Com,387,B Ed,75,B Pharma,39,B Sc,499,B Tech,423,BA,373,Bank,134,BARC,1,BBA,2,BCA,72,BDS,40,BE,173,Bihar,43,BPSC,1,BSF,17,BSSC,4,CA,70,CAPF,23,Carpenter,7,CAT,1,Central Govt,447,CEO,6,CGPSC,11,Chandigarh,8,Chhattisgarh,40,CISF,3,Civil,17,Clerks,202,CMA,5,Commander,4,Computer Operator,9,Computer Science,21,Constables,70,Consultant,3,Cook,13,Coordinators,1,Counsellor,6,Court,57,CPSE,1,Crane Operator,1,CRPF,33,CS,25,CSIR,4,Delhi,116,DEO,88,Dev University,6,DFCCIL,2,DGT,1,Diploma,288,Director,14,Disability,1,Disaster Management Institute,1,Distric Consultant,1,Distric Programme Officer,2,DNB,15,Doctor,55,DRDO,4,Drivers Job,48,DSSSB,2,DTL,1,DTP Operator,1,Dy.Surveyor,2,ECL,1,Economics,2,Editor,1,Electrical,45,Electrician Job,46,Electronics,23,Engineer,309,Engineering Services Examination,14,Entrance Examination,1,EPFO,4,EPI,1,ESIC,33,Ex-servicemen,2,exam,60,Examination,14,Executive,17,Executive Trainee,8,Finance Manager,7,Financial,4,Financial Job,7,Fire Station Officer,3,Fireman,19,Fitment Formula,1,Fitter,29,FLC Co- cordinators,1,FOR BANKS,2,FOR CLERK,2,FOR CLERK. FOR BANKS,1,FOR OTHER EXAM.,3,FOR PO,3,Foremen,8,Forest Guard,2,Gail India,2,GATE,20,GCECT,1,GDMOs,1,General Central Services,1,Geologist,7,Geophysicist,1,GITAM UNIVERSITY,3,GK,3,Goa,13,Goods Guard,2,Government Job,24,Govt Staff news,28,GPSC,12,Grade-IV (DASS),1,Graduate,686,Graphic,2,Greeting,2,Group C,1,Group D,1,GS,1,GSL,1,GSSSB,12,Gujarat,68,Haryana,73,Hawaldar,1,HCL,4,Health Inspector,1,Himachal Pradesh,42,Hindi Translator,3,Home Science,1,Hospital,12,Hot,26,HPCL,1,HPGCL,1,HPL India,1,HPPSC,7,HPSC,11,HPSSB,1,HPSSC,1,HRTC,3,HSSC,10,Human Resource,2,Hyderabad,14,IBPS,6,ICAR,2,ICMR,3,ICSI,8,ICWA,45,IDPL,1,IGNOU,1,IIA Bengaluru,2,IIM,6,IIM Kozhikode,1,IISER,12,IIT,13,IIT Bombay,23,IIT Guwahati,2,IIT Kharagpur,4,IIT Mandi,5,Implementation of 7th CPC,11,India Post,9,indian Air Force,12,Indian Army,48,INDIAN COST GUARD,3,Indian Economic Service,11,indian forest service,19,Indian Navy,28,Indian Ordnance Factories,13,Indian Statistical Service,11,Indra Gandhi National University,1,Inspector,38,Institute,1,Instructor,8,Intelligence Bureau,5,Intermediate,458,International Jobs,5,Interview,26,Investigator,3,IOC Limited,17,IRCON,1,IREDA,1,ISRO,7,IT,14,ITBP,14,ITDC,1,ITI,121,ITI LIMITED,2,J & K,7,Jammu & Kashmir,18,JCM,2,Jharkhand,48,JKPSC,3,JKSSB,3,JNU,1,Job News,138,Journalist,1,JPSC,6,Jr. Officer,3,JRF,4,JSLPS,2,JSSC,9,JTO,1,Judge,7,Judicial Service Examination,3,July,7,Junior Assistant,17,Junior Engineer,40,Junior Overman,3,Junior Research Fellow,18,Junior Resident,8,Junior Superintendent,2,Junior Technician,2,junior telecom officer,2,Kandla Port Trust,2,Karnataka,71,Kerala,36,Kerala PSC,2,Kochi,3,Kolkata,16,Kolkata Police Recruitment Board,1,Kolkata Port Trust,4,KPCS,4,KPSC,10,KRCL,1,KSINC,1,KVB,1,KVS,2,Lab Assistant,29,Laboratory Assistant,11,Labrary Science,1,Lady Constable,1,Law,53,LAWYER,5,LDC,132,Lecturer,15,Legal,5,Legislative Assembly Secretariat,1,Librarian,13,Library Assistant,4,LIC,3,Life Sciences,1,LLB,21,Lok Sabha,2,Ltd. Company,159,Lucknow,2,Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation Limited,2,m,1,M A,3,M Ed,32,M Phil,17,M Tech,1,M. Com,94,M.A,77,M.Com,19,M.SC.,216,M.Tech,246,MA,15,Madhya Pradesh,61,Maharashtra,139,Mali,3,Management Trainee,14,Manager,147,Manipur,8,Marketing Executive,6,Master Degree,32,Matric,361,Matron,1,MBA,107,MBBS,140,MCA,66,MD,72,MDNL,1,ME,137,Mechaniical,48,Medical,14,Medical Officer,67,Medical Professional,1,Medical Superintendent,4,Meghalaya,11,MES,2,Metro Rail,14,MIDHANI Crane Operator,1,minimum wages,2,Mining Sirdar,8,Ministry of Defence,9,Mizoram,4,MMRCL,1,Model Question,1,Motor Vehicle Inspector,2,MPCDF,1,MPPKVVCL,3,MPPSC,8,MPSC,10,MS,28,mtnl,3,mts,57,Mumbai Port Trust,4,Mysore,1,Nagaland,2,NALCO,2,National Defence Academy,21,NBAGR,2,NCBB,1,NCC,1,NCERT,7,NCLAS,1,NCPIL,1,NDM,1,NDMA,1,NDMC,1,NEIAH,1,NET,27,New Delhi,18,NFC,2,NHAI,2,NHB,1,NHM,15,NIELIT,1,NIFT,2,NIPER,3,NIRM,1,NISG,1,NIT,9,NJA,1,Notice,7,NPCIL,3,NPSC,1,NTPC Limited,5,NTRO,1,NTSE,1,Nurse,62,Nursing,17,Nutrition Counselor,1,Odisha,70,Odisha Gramaya Bank,1,Odisha Police,1,Office Assistant,29,Office Superintendent,2,officer,203,ONGC,4,Operator,13,OPSC,7,Ordnance Depot,3,Oriental Bank,2,OSSC,10,OSSSC,3,OT Technicians,1,Overseer,5,Para-Military,1,Paramedical Staff,8,Pathology,2,Patwari,6,PEC LTD,1,Pension,1,Pension Revision,1,Peon,45,PFC Consulting Ltd,1,PG Degree,261,PGDCA,4,PGDCA/ DOEACC,5,PGIMER,3,PGIMS,2,PGVCL,3,Ph D,52,Pharmacist,23,Phycial Research Laboratory,1,Pilots,3,Plumber,6,Police,80,Polytechnic,1,Port Trust,1,Post Graduate,43,Postman,11,PPSC,8,Prasar Bharti,1,Private Jobs,26,Private Secretary,2,Probationary Officer,9,Probationary Officers,10,Professor,65,Programme Assistana,1,Programme Officer,2,Programmer,12,Project Assistant,14,Project Engineer,5,Project Fellow,9,Project Officer,7,PSSSB,1,PSTCL,1,Psychology,1,puducherry,3,Punjab,46,Railway,64,Rajasthan,48,Rajya Sabha,2,Rally Program,1,RBI,5,Registrar,14,Rehabilitation Worker-NCD,1,Relationship Executive,1,Research Associates,12,Research Officer,6,Result,45,Review Officer,2,RGCB,1,Rishikesh,4,RITES Ltd.,11,RPCS,1,RPF,8,RPSC,4,RSMSSB,3,Rssc,1,Sahyog Agricultural,1,SAIL,3,Sales Tax Inspector,1,SBI,11,Sc,1,Schedule,1,Scholarships,1,School Jobs,1,SCI,1,Scientific Assistana,1,Scientific Assistant,5,Scientific Officer,11,scientist,55,Secretary,9,Section Officer,13,Security,24,Senior Resident,13,SERIES 2,1,SERISE 1,1,SET,1,Seventh Pay Commission,13,Seventh Pay Commission Report,1,SGM Hospital,1,SIDBI,1,Sikkim,1,SLET,1,Social Worker,8,Specialist Officer,7,SPSC,1,SRF,4,SSA,1,SSB,23,SSC,73,Staff,55,State Consultana,2,State Govt,29,State Programme Officer,2,State Resource Person,1,Stenographer,83,Store Keeper,22,Store Officer,5,Store Superintendent,2,Strike,3,Superintendent,10,Superintendent Engineer,1,Supervisor,18,Surgical Specialist,1,Surveyor,8,SVNIRTAR,1,Sweeper,29,Syllabus,22,Tamil Nadu,62,Teaching Job,76,Technical Assistant,52,Technical Attendant,5,Technical Officer,23,technician,77,Telangana,26,Telephone Operator,1,Territorial Army,1,time table,3,TISS,3,TMC,2,TNPL,5,TNPSC,15,TPSC,5,Tradesman,23,Trainee Officer,7,Translator,3,Trending Now,8,Tripura,9,TSPSC,5,TTA,1,Typist,2,UDC,34,UG,1,UIIC,1,UKPSC,5,UKSSSC,6,University,28,University Jobs,29,UPCL,4,UPPCL,2,UPPSC,9,UPSC,141,UPSSSC,19,Uttar Pradesh,114,Uttarakhand,42,Veterinary Surgeon,5,WBPSC,12,WBSSC,5,Weaver,1,West Bengal,92,
News@Jobs:Latest Govt, Bank, State Jobs Alert: Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Syllabus for IFS Main Examination- 2016
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Syllabus for IFS Main Examination- 2016
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Syllabus for IFS Main Examination- 2016 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE PAPER-­I 1. Animal Nutrition­- Energy sources, energy, metabolism and requirements for maintenance and production of milk, meat, eggs and wool. Evaluation of feeds as sources of energy.
News@Jobs:Latest Govt, Bank, State Jobs Alert
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